The critical factor to understand is that these three energy waves are emitted at different speeds and frequencies. Like any sound wave, they must be absorbed or interfered with to be diluted. The straight through designs that Borla pioneered dramatically reduce back pressure while eliminating significant sound waves. A portion of this effort is proprietary, even to the level of allowing Alex Borla multiple patents for his unique methods of acoustical sound wave attenuation in an internal-combustion engine muffler. This being said, some of the characteristics we can share. The biggest secret is use of multiple cores in our high end street and racing mufflers. This also is patented technology. Another component is the quality of the materials used. Some companies try to cut corners by making the shell out of a higher quality stainless steel then using mild steel or cheaper 400-series stainless inside. These materials are not conducive to long term use in the stressful environment found in today’s mufflers. One of the reasons is that today’s engines are very lean and clean, creating a much hotter exhaust stream. Other trick items of which Borla is include the special perforated core developed around significant testing as well as the special packing materials Borla incorporates. The use of these components is both costly and requires special equipment to assemble our mufflers. Alex has been at the forefront of both performance exhaust systems and assembly equipment for nearly 30 years. Borla utilizes high quality austenitic stainless steel for everything, including the steel wool packing material. Costly? You bet, but extremely effective and durable. So the secret is to absorb the sound waves and not disturb the power waves. All this while insulating any heat sinked by the muffler.