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Frequently Asked Questions

Q. How much horsepower can I expect to gain?

An engine is an air pump, and BORLA's exhaust system allows the engine to pump and flow more uninterrupted air. The actual horsepower increase depends upon the fuel management system's ability to provide the right amount of fuel to match the extra air flow; 5 to 15% increases are not uncommon. Under racing conditions, our XR-1® collector mufflers actually make more horsepower than an open exhaust!

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Q. How does FLOW affect performance and sound?

BORLA exhaust systems’ patented, straight-through design increases exhaust gas velocity and moves more uninterrupted air through the engine. Since there are no restrictions, exhaust gases evacuate the cylinder completely, thereby allowing the new charge to come into the cylinder and create more power. The result is a larger volume of torque from the engine as well as an enhanced exhaust tonal quality.

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Q. Will I get better gas mileage?

Yes, a better performing engine uses less fuel more efficiently, increasing fuel economy under normal cruising conditions. BORLA’s patented flow through design and proper diameter mandrel bent tubing evacuate the exhaust gases out the system much faster and at a much greater temperature than factory exhaust. This results in performance gains in HP when you plant your foot and fuel economy at cruising speeds. And, the bigger the vehicle, the bigger the engine, the bigger the load, the bigger the savings in fuel. That's why UPS delivery trucks are Borla-equipped!

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Q. Why does it cost more?

The most commonly used metals in the manufacture of exhaust systems are rusty mild steel, aluminized steel or an inferior 400-series stainless. BORLA uses only high quality austenitic stainless steel. It costs more than the other lesser grades of steel. To cut, bend and hand weld this grade of stainless steel takes special equipment too. Ask your local muffler shop if they can make a smooth, precision mandrel bend in a 2.50" 201 or 304 Stainless Steel pipe for you. You won't find many that can, and it won't be cheap. We also focus heavily on research and development to assure that the system fits, performs and sounds better than any other system on the market. Add to this pressure testing, our Million-Mile Warranty and the years of race winning technology that go into the systems made at BORLA, and you will see why we have so many loyal, repeat customers. A BORLA is actually very cost effective when you take into account the fact that most exhaust systems will need replacement within 18 months to 4 years while a BORLA exhaust is designed to last the life of your vehicle.

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Q. What does it sound like?

BORLA Cat Back™ systems have a deeper, throatier tone than stock. Our engineers take care in designing and tuning the systems with the mellow sound of power, aggressive yet elegant. Picture yourself driving down the road and turning up the bass on your stereo system but not changing the volume. That's what Borla sounds like!

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Q. Will it void my factory warranty?

NO. Some cars even have BORLA systems as the OEM exhaust. All of our street Cat-Backs™, Rear Sections and Mufflers are 50-state emissions legal. In fact, it is illegal for a dealer to deny you the OE warranty because you have changed the exhaust system.

If your vehicle manufacturer fails to honor emission/warranty claims, contact EPA at (202) 260-2080 or www.epa.gov.  If federal warranty protection is denied, contact the FTC at (202) 326-3128 or www.ftc.gov

Here is the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act of 1975.

MAGNUSON MOSS WARRANTY ACT

US Code - Title 15, Chapter 50, Sections 2301-2312

 Section 2301. Definitions

(1) The term "consumer product" means any tangible personal property which is distributed in commerce and which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes (including any such property intended to be attached to or installed in any real property without regard to whether it is so attached or installed).

(2) The term "Commission" means the Federal Trade Commission.

(3) The term "consumer" means a buyer (other than for purposes of resale) of any consumer product, any person to whom such product is transferred during the duration of an implied or written warranty (or service contract) applicable to the product, and any other person who is entitled by the terms of such warranty (or service contract) or under applicable State law to enforce against the warrantor (or service contractor) the obligations of the warranty (or service contract).

(4) The term "supplier" means any person engaged in the business of making a consumer product directly or indirectly available to consumers.

(5) The term "warrantor" means any supplier or other person who gives or offers to give a written warranty or who is or may be obligated under an implied warranty.

(6) The term "written warranty" means -

 

(A) any written affirmation of fact or written promise made in connection with the sale of a consumer product by a supplier to a buyer which relates to the nature of the material or workmanship and affirms or promises that such material or workmanship is defect free or will meet a specified level of performance over a specified period of time, or

(B) any undertaking in writing in connection with the sale by a supplier of a consumer product to refund, repair, replace, or take other remedial action with respect to such product in the event that such product fails to meet the specifications set forth in the undertaking, which written affirmation, promise, or undertaking becomes part of the basis of the bargain between a supplier and a buyer for purposes other than resale of such product.

(7) The term "implied warranty" means an implied warranty arising under State law (as modified by sections 2308 and 2304(a) of this title) in connection with the sale by a supplier of a consumer product.

(8) The term "service contract" means a contract in writing to perform, over a fixed period of time or for a specified duration, services relating to the maintenance or repair (or both) of a consumer product.

(9) The term "reasonable and necessary maintenance" consists of those operations

(A) which the consumer reasonably can be expected to perform or have performed and

(B) which are necessary to keep any consumer product performing its intended function and operating at a reasonable level of performance.

(10) The term "remedy" means whichever of the following actions the warrantor elects:

(A) repair,

(B) replacement, or

(C) refund;

except that the warrantor may not elect refund unless (i) the warrantor is unable to provide replacement and repair is not commercially practicable or cannot be timely made, or (ii) the consumer is willing to accept such refund.

(11) The term ''replacement'' means furnishing a new consumer product which is identical or reasonably equivalent to the warranted consumer product.

(12) The term "refund" means refunding the actual purchase price (less reasonable depreciation based on actual use where permitted by rules of the Commission).

(13) The term "distributed in commerce" means sold in commerce, introduced or delivered for introduction into commerce, or held for sale or distribution after introduction into commerce.

(14) The term "commerce" means trade, traffic, commerce, or transportation -

(A) between a place in a State and any place outside thereof,
or
(B) which affects trade, traffic, commerce, or transportation described in subparagraph (A).

(15) The term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Canal Zone, or American Samoa. The term "State law" includes a law of the United States applicable only to the District of Columbia or only to a territory or possession of the United States; and the term "Federal law'" excludes any State law.

Section 2302. Rules governing contents of warranties

 

(a) Full and conspicuous disclosure of terms and conditions; additional requirements for contents In order to improve the adequacy of information available to consumers, prevent deception, and improve competition in the marketing of consumer products, any warrantor warranting a consumer product to a consumer by means of a written warranty shall, to the extent required by rules of the Commission, fully and conspicuously disclose in simple and readily understood language the terms and conditions of such warranty. Such rules may require inclusion in the written warranty of any of the following items among others:

(1) The clear identification of the names and addresses of the warrantors.

(2) The identity of the party or parties to whom the warranty is extended.

(3) The products or parts covered.

(4) A statement of what the warrantor will do in the event of a defect, malfunction, or failure to conform with such written warranty - at whose expense - and for what period of time.

(5) A statement of what the consumer must do and expenses he must bear.

(6) Exceptions and exclusions from the terms of the warranty.

(7) The step-by-step procedure which the consumer should take in order to obtain performance of any obligation under the warranty, including the identification of any person or class of persons authorized to perform the obligations set forth in the warranty.

(8) Information respecting the availability of any informal dispute settlement procedure offered by the warrantor and a recital, where the warranty so provides, that the purchaser may be required to resort to such procedure before pursuing any legal remedies in the courts.

(9) A brief, general description of the legal remedies available to the consumer.

(10) The time at which the warrantor will perform any obligations under the warranty.

(11) The period of time within which, after notice of a defect, malfunction, or failure to conform with the warranty, the warrantor will perform any obligations under the warranty.

(12) The characteristics or properties of the products, or parts thereof, that are not covered by the warranty.

(13) The elements of the warranty in words or phrases which would not mislead a reasonable, average consumer as to the nature or scope of the warranty.

(b) Availability of terms to consumer; manner and form for presentation and display of information; duration; extension of period for written warranty or service contract

(1)

(A) The Commission shall prescribe rules requiring that the terms of any written warranty on a consumer product be made available to the consumer (or prospective consumer) prior to the sale of the product to him.

(B) The Commission may prescribe rules for determining the manner and form in which information with respect to any written warranty of a consumer product shall be clearly and conspicuously presented or displayed so as not to mislead the reasonable, average consumer, when such information is contained in advertising, labeling, point-of-sale material, or other representations in writing.

(2) Nothing in this chapter (other than paragraph (3) of this subsection) shall be deemed to authorize the Commission to prescribe the duration of written warranties given or to require that a consumer product or any of its components be warranted.

(3) The Commission may prescribe rules for extending the period of time a written warranty or service contract is in effect to correspond with any period of time in excess of a reasonable period (not less than 10 days) during which the consumer is deprived of the use of such consumer product by reason of failure of the product to conform with the written warranty or by reason of the failure of the warrantor (or service contractor) to carry out such warranty (or service contract) within the period specified in the warranty (or service contract).

(c) Prohibition on conditions for written or implied warranty; waiver by Commission No warrantor of a consumer product may condition his written or implied warranty of such product on the consumer's using, in connection with such product, any article or service (other than article or service provided without charge under the terms of the warranty) which is identified by brand, trade, or corporate name; except that the prohibition of this subsection may be waived by the Commission if -

(1) the warrantor satisfies the Commission that the warranted product will function properly only if the article or service so identified is used in connection with the warranted product, and

(2) the Commission finds that such a waiver is in the public interest. The Commission shall identify in the Federal Register, and permit public comment on, all applications for waiver of the prohibition of this subsection, and shall publish in the Federal Register its disposition of any such application, including the reasons therefor.

(d) Incorporation by reference of detailed substantive warranty provisions
The Commission may by rule devise detailed substantive warranty provisions which warrantors may incorporate by reference in their warranties.

(e) Applicability to consumer products costing more than $5
The provisions of this section apply only to warranties which pertain to consumer products actually costing the consumer more than $5.

Section 2303. Designation of written warranties

(a) Full (statement of duration) or limited warranty
Any warrantor warranting a consumer product by means of a written warranty shall clearly and conspicuously designate such warranty in the following manner, unless exempted from doing so by the Commission pursuant to subsection (c) of this section:

(1) If the written warranty meets the Federal minimum standards for warranty set forth in section 2304 of this title, then it shall be conspicuously designated a ''full (statement of duration) warranty''.

(2) If the written warranty does not meet the Federal minimum standards for warranty set forth in section 2304 of this title, then it shall be conspicuously designated a "limited warranty".

(b) Applicability of requirements, standards, etc., to representations or statements of customer satisfaction
This section and sections 2302 and 2304 of this title shall not apply to statements or representations which are similar to expressions of general policy concerning customer satisfaction and which are not subject to any specific limitations.

(c) Exemptions by Commission
In addition to exercising the authority pertaining to disclosure granted in section 2302 of this title, the Commission may by rule determine when a written warranty does not have to be designated either ''full (statement of duration)'' or ''limited'' in accordance with this section.

(d) Applicability to consumer products costing more than $10 and not designated as full warranties
The provisions of subsections (a) and (c) of this section apply only to warranties which pertain to consumer products actually costing the consumer more than $10 and which are not designated "full (statement of duration) warranties".

Section 2304. Federal minimum standards for warranties

(a) Remedies under written warranty; duration of implied warranty; exclusion or limitation on consequential damages for breach of written or implied warranty; election of refund or replacement. In order for a warrantor warranting a consumer product by means of a written warranty to meet the Federal minimum standards for warranty -

(1) such warrantor must as a minimum remedy such consumer product within a reasonable time and without charge, in the case of a defect, malfunction, or failure to conform with such written warranty;

(2) notwithstanding section 2308(b) of this title, such warrantor may not impose any limitation on the duration of any implied warranty on the product;

(3) such warrantor may not exclude or limit consequential damages for breach of any written or implied warranty on such product, unless such exclusion or limitation conspicuously appears on the face of the warranty; and

(4) if the product (or a component part thereof) contains a defect or malfunction after a reasonable number of attempts by the warrantor to remedy defects or malfunctions in such product, such warrantor must permit the consumer to elect either a refund for, or replacement without charge of, such product or part (as the case may be). The Commission may by rule specify for purposes of this paragraph, what constitutes a reasonable number of attempts to remedy particular kinds of defects or malfunctions under different circumstances. If the warrantor replaces a component part of a consumer product, such replacement shall include installing the part in the product without charge.

(b) Duties and conditions imposed on consumer by warrantor

(1) In fulfilling the duties under subsection (a) of this section respecting a written warranty, the warrantor shall not impose any duty other than notification upon any consumer as a condition of securing remedy of any consumer product which malfunctions, is defective, or does not conform to the written warranty, unless the warrantor has demonstrated in a rulemaking proceeding, or can demonstrate in an administrative or judicial enforcement proceeding (including private enforcement), or in an informal dispute settlement proceeding, that such a duty is reasonable.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a warrantor may require, as a condition to replacement of, or refund for, any consumer product under subsection (a) of this section, that such consumer product shall be made available to the warrantor free and clear of liens and other encumbrances, except as otherwise provided by rule or order of the Commission in cases in which such a requirement would not be practicable.

(3) The Commission may, by rule define in detail the duties set forth in subsection (a) of this section and the applicability of such duties to warrantors of different categories of consumer products with ''full (statement of duration)'' warranties.

(4) The duties under subsection (a) of this section extend from the warrantor to each person who is a consumer with respect to the consumer product.

(c) Waiver of standards
The performance of the duties under subsection (a) of this section shall not be required of the warrantor if he can show that the defect, malfunction, or failure of any warranted consumer product to conform with a written warranty, was caused by damage (not resulting from defect or malfunction) while in the possession of the consumer, or unreasonable use (including failure to provide reasonable and necessary maintenance).

(d) Remedy without charge
For purposes of this section and of section 2302(c) of this title, the term ''without charge'' means that the warrantor may not assess the consumer for any costs the warrantor or his representatives incur in connection with the required remedy of a warranted consumer product. An obligation under subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section to remedy without charge does not necessarily require the warrantor to compensate the consumer for incidental expenses; however, if any incidental expenses are incurred because the remedy is not made within a reasonable time or because the warrantor imposed an unreasonable duty upon the consumer as a condition of securing remedy, then the consumer shall be entitled to recover reasonable incidental expenses which are so incurred in any action against the warrantor.

(e) Incorporation of standards to products designated with full warranty for purposes of judicial actions
If a supplier designates a warranty applicable to a consumer product as a ''full (statement of duration)'' warranty, then the warranty on such product shall, for purposes of any action under section 2310(d) of this title or under any State law, be deemed to incorporate at least the minimum requirements of this section and rules prescribed under this section.

Section 2305. Full and limited warranting of a consumer product

Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit the selling of a consumer product which has both full and limited warranties if such warranties are clearly and conspicuously differentiated.

Section 2306. Service contracts; rules for full, clear and conspicuous disclosure of terms and conditions; addition to or in lieu of written warranty

(a) The Commission may prescribe by rule the manner and form in which the terms and conditions of service contracts shall be fully, clearly, and conspicuously disclosed.

(b) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent a supplier or warrantor from entering into a service contract with the consumer in addition to or in lieu of a written warranty if such contract fully, clearly, and conspicuously discloses its terms and conditions in simple and readily understood language.

Section 2307. Designation of representatives by warrantor to perform duties under written or implied warranty

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent any warrantor from designating representatives to perform duties under the written or implied warranty: Provided, That such warrantor shall make reasonable arrangements for compensation of such designated representatives, but no such designation shall relieve the warrantor of his direct responsibilities to the consumer or make the representative a co-warrantor.

Section 2308. Implied warranties

(a) Restrictions on disclaimers or modifications
No supplier may disclaim or modify (except as provided in subsection (b) of this section) any implied warranty to a consumer with respect to such consumer product if

(1) such supplier makes any written warranty to the consumer with respect to such consumer Product, or

(2) at the time of sale, or within 90 days thereafter, such supplier enters into a service contract with the consumer which applies to such consumer product.

(b) Limitation on duration
For purposes of this chapter (other than section 2304(a)(2) of this title), implied warranties may be limited in duration to the duration of a written warranty of reasonable duration, if such limitation is conscionable and is set forth in clear and unmistakable language and prominently displayed on the face of the warranty.

(c) Effectiveness of disclaimers, modifications, or limitations
A disclaimer, modification, or limitation made in violation of this section shall be ineffective for purposes of this chapter and State law.

Section 2309. Procedures applicable to promulgation of rules by Commission

(a) Oral presentation
Any rule prescribed under this chapter shall be prescribed in accordance with section 553 of title 5; except that the Commission shall give interested persons an opportunity for oral presentations of data, views, and arguments, in addition to written submissions. A transcript shall be kept of any oral presentation. Any such rule shall be subject to judicial review under section 57a(e) of this title in the same manner as rules prescribed under section 57a(a)(1)(B) of this title, except that section 57a(e)(3)(B) of this title shall not apply.

(b) Warranties and warranty practices involved in sale of used motor vehicles
The Commission shall initiate within one year after January 4, 1975, a rulemaking proceeding dealing with warranties and warranty practices in connection with the sale of used motor vehicles; and, to the extent necessary to supplement the protections offered the consumer by this chapter, shall prescribe rules dealing with such warranties and practices. In prescribing rules under this subsection, the Commission may exercise any authority it may have under this chapter, or other law, and in addition it may require disclosure that a used motor vehicle is sold without any warranty and specify the form and content of such disclosure.

Section 2310. Remedies in consumer disputes

(a) Informal dispute settlement procedures; establishment; rules setting forth minimum requirements; effect of compliance by warrantor; review of informal procedures or implementation by Commission; application to existing informal procedures

(1) Congress hereby declares it to be its policy to encourage warrantors to establish procedures whereby consumer disputes are fairly and expeditiously settled through informal dispute settlement mechanisms.

(2) The Commission shall prescribe rules setting forth minimum requirements for any informal dispute settlement procedure which is incorporated into the terms of a written warranty to which any provision of this chapter applies. Such rules shall provide for participation in such procedure by independent or governmental entities.

(3) One or more warrantors may establish an informal dispute settlement procedure which meets the requirements of the Commission's rules under paragraph (2). If -

(A) a warrantor establishes such a procedure,

(B) such procedure, and its implementation, meets the requirements of such rules, and

(C) he incorporates in a written warranty a requirement that the consumer resort to such procedure before pursuing any legal remedy under this section respecting such warranty, then

(i) the consumer may not commence a civil action (other than a class action) under subsection (d) of this section unless he initially resorts to such procedure; and

(ii) a class of consumers may not proceed in a class action under subsection (d) of this section except to the extent the court determines necessary to establish the representative capacity of the named plaintiffs, unless the named plaintiffs (upon notifying the defendant that they are named plaintiffs in a class action with respect to a warranty obligation) initially resort to such procedure. In the case of such a class action which is brought in a district court of the United States, the representative capacity of the named plaintiffs shall be established in the application of rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. In any civil action arising out of a warranty obligation and relating to a matter considered in such a procedure, any decision in such procedure shall be admissible in evidence.

(4) The Commission on its own initiative may, or upon written complaint filed by any interested person shall, review the bona fide operation of any dispute settlement procedure resort to which is stated in a written warranty to be a prerequisite to pursuing a legal remedy under this section.

If the Commission finds that such procedure or its implementation fails to comply with the requirements of the rules under paragraph (2), the Commission may take appropriate remedial action under any authority it may have under this chapter or any other provision of law.

(5) Until rules under paragraph (2) take effect, this subsection shall not affect the validity of any informal dispute settlement procedure respecting consumer warranties, but in any action under subsection (d) of this section, the court may invalidate any such procedure if it finds that such procedure is unfair.

(b) Prohibited acts It shall be a violation of section 45(a)(1) of this title for any person to fail to comply with any requirement imposed on such person by this chapter (or a rule thereunder) or to violate any prohibition contained in this chapter (or a rule thereunder).

(c) Injunction proceedings by Attorney General or Commission for deceptive warranty, noncompliance with requirements, or violating prohibitions; procedures; definitions

(1) The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction of any action brought by the Attorney General (in his capacity as such), or by the Commission by any of its attorneys designated by it for such purpose, to restrain

(A) any warrantor from making a deceptive warranty with respect to a consumer product, or

(B) any person from failing to comply with any requirement imposed on such person by or pursuant to this chapter or from violating any prohibition contained in this chapter. Upon proper showing that, weighing the equities and considering the Commission's or Attorney General's likelihood of ultimate success, such action would be in the public interest and after notice to the defendant, a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction may be granted without bond. In the case of an action brought by the Commission, if a complaint under section 45 of this title is not filed within such period (not exceeding 10 days) as may be specified by the court after the issuance of the temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction, the order or injunction shall be dissolved by the court and be of no further force and effect. Any suit shall be brought in the district in which such person resides or transacts business. Whenever it appears to the court that the ends of justice require that other persons should be parties in the action, the court may cause them to be summoned whether or not they reside in the district in which the court is held, and to that end process may be served in any district.

(2) For the purposes of this subsection, the term ''deceptive warranty'' means

(A) a written warranty which (i) contains an affirmation, promise, description, or representation which is either false or fraudulent, or which, in light of all of the circumstances, would mislead a reasonable individual exercising due care; or (ii) fails to contain information which is necessary in light of all of the circumstances, to make the warranty not misleading to a reasonable individual exercising due care; or

(B) a written warranty created by the use of such terms as ''guaranty'' or ''warranty'', if the terms and conditions of such warranty so limit its scope and application as to deceive a reasonable individual.

(d) Civil action by consumer for damages, etc.; jurisdiction; recovery of costs and expenses; cognizable claims

(1) Subject to subsections (a)(3) and (e) of this section, a consumer who is damaged by the failure of a supplier, warrantor, or service contractor to comply with any obligation under this chapter, or under a written warranty, implied warranty, or service contract, may bring suit for damages and other legal and equitable relief -

(A) in any court of competent jurisdiction in any State or the District of Columbia; or

(B) in an appropriate district court of the United States, subject to paragraph (3) of this subsection.

(2) If a consumer finally prevails in any action brought under paragraph (1) of this subsection, he may be allowed by the court to recover as part of the judgment a sum equal to the aggregate amount of cost and expenses (including attorneys' fees based on actual time expended) determined by the court to have been reasonably incurred by the plaintiff for or in connection with the commencement and prosecution of such action, unless the court in its discretion shall determine that such an award of attorneys' fees would be inappropriate.

(3) No claim shall be cognizable in a suit brought under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection -

(A) if the amount in controversy of any individual claim is less than the sum or value of $25;

(B) if the amount in controversy is less than the sum or value of $50,000 (exclusive of interests and costs) computed on the basis of all claims to be determined in this suit; or

(C) if the action is brought as a class action, and the number of named plaintiffs is less than one hundred.

(e) Class actions; conditions; procedures applicable
No action (other than a class action or an action respecting a warranty to which subsection (a)(3) of this section applies) may be brought under subsection (d) of this section for failure to comply with any obligation under any written or implied warranty or service contract, and a class of consumers may not proceed in a class action under such subsection with respect to such a failure except to the extent the court determines necessary to establish the representative capacity of the named plaintiffs, unless the person obligated under the warranty or service contract is afforded a reasonable opportunity to cure such failure to comply. In the case of such a class action (other than a class action respecting a warranty to which subsection (a)(3) of this section applies) brought under subsection (d) of this section for breach of any written or implied warranty or service contract, such reasonable opportunity will be afforded by the named plaintiffs and they shall at that time notify the defendant that they are acting on behalf of the class. In the case of such a class action which is brought in a district court of the United States, the representative capacity of the named plaintiffs shall be established in the application of rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(f) Warrantors subject to enforcement of remedies
For purposes of this section, only the warrantor actually making a written affirmation of fact, promise, or undertaking shall be deemed to have created a written warranty, and any rights arising thereunder may be enforced under this section only against such warrantor and no other person.

Section 2311. Applicability to other laws

(a) Federal Trade Commission Act and Federal Seed Act

(1) Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to repeal, invalidate, or supersede the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.) or any statute defined therein as an Antitrust Act.

(2) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to repeal, invalidate, or supersede the Federal Seed Act (7 U.S.C. 1551 et seq.) and nothing in this chapter shall apply to seed for planting.

(b) Rights, remedies, and liabilities

(1) Nothing in this chapter shall invalidate or restrict any right or remedy of any consumer under State law or any other Federal law.

(2) Nothing in this chapter (other than sections 2308 and 2304(a)(2) and (4) of this title) shall (A) affect the liability of, or impose liability on, any person for personal injury, or (B) supersede any provision of State law regarding consequential damages for injury to the person or other injury.

(c) State warranty laws

(1) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section and in paragraph (2) of this subsection, a State requirement -

(A) which relates to labeling or disclosure with respect to written warranties or performance thereunder;

(B) which is within the scope of an applicable requirement of sections 2302, 2303, and 2304 of this title (and rules implementing such sections), and

(C) which is not identical to a requirement of section 2302, 2303, or 2304 of this title (or a rule thereunder), shall not be applicable to written warranties complying with such sections (or rules thereunder).

(2) If, upon application of an appropriate State agency, the Commission determines (pursuant to rules issued in accordance with section 2309 of this title) that any requirement of such State covering any transaction to which this chapter applies

(A) affords protection to consumers greater than the requirements of this chapter and

(B) does not unduly burden interstate commerce, then such State requirement shall be applicable (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection) to the extent specified in such determination for so long as the State administers and enforces effectively any such greater requirement.

(d) Other Federal warranty laws This chapter (other than section 2302(c) of this title) shall be inapplicable to any written warranty the making or content of which is otherwise governed by Federal law. If only a portion of a written warranty is so governed by Federal law, the remaining portion shall be subject to this chapter.

Section 2312. Effective dates

(a) Effective date of chapter
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, this chapter shall take effect 6 months after January 4, 1975, but shall not apply to consumer products manufactured prior to such date.

(b) Effective date of section 2302(a)
Section 2302(a) of this title shall take effect 6 months after the final publication of rules respecting such section; except that the Commission, for good cause shown, may postpone the applicability of such sections until one year after such final publication in order to permit any designated classes of suppliers to bring their written warranties into compliance with rules promulgated pursuant to this chapter.

(c) Promulgation of rules
The Commission shall promulgate rules for initial implementation of this chapter as soon as possible after January 4, 1975, but in no event later than one year after such date.

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Q. Is a bigger pipe and muffler system better?

No, there has to be a balanced design to enhance the maximum engine output, exhaust gas velocity, and sound. If the diameter of the tubing is too large, the exhaust gas velocity will be reduced and rob the exhaust of thermal efficiency.  Unfortunately we often disprove accepted racer mentalities like bigger is better. We must spend a great deal of energy explaining to someone how a 4" exhaust pipe will not work as efficiently as a 3" pipe. That is hard sometimes, but it is why we have magazine editors. Even with our excellent "track record" winning more professional car races than all the other muffler makers combined, we still often have to prove our theories to very well know top racers. One of these issues is volume versus velocity. The late John Lingenfelter helped us prove this over and over with his legendary Corvette exploits. People were often amazed how he would run 600 plus horsepower Vettes with 2 1/2" exhaust. If 4" would have made John go faster, he would have run it. We need to have a pipe large enough to overcome the boundary layer restriction in a dynamic flow situation while maintaining exhaust speed and evacuation. This isn't a simple axiom to understand, but the second best explanation is to say in race classes where let us say the budgets are seldom limited and the rules are not restrictive regarding exhaust, you will observe much smaller exhaust header tubing and exhaust pipes than some kids run on their 190-horsepower hand-me-down Honda sports compacts on the street.

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Q. My new car came with Stainless Steel exhaust from the factory! What's the difference?

Material Difference:  Many new-model cars and trucks come factory-equipped with a low grade, 400 series stainless steel exhaust. These are an improvement from the old, rusty steel systems and are built to improve durability somewhat. Also, the inferior grade of stainless is the only cheap material that will last through the factory warranty period. But, ferritic stainless steels, which are part of the 400 series of stainless alloys, are magnetic, as compared to Austenitic stainless steels, which are part of the 200 & 300 series of stainless alloys and are non-magnetic.    BORLA incorporates Austenitic stainless, which is superior for automotive exhaust because it exhibits higher hardness and yield strength as well as excellent ductility.  And, the higher nickel and chromium content makes it much more resistant to corrosion. Because these austenitic alloys are higher grade materials and harder to work with, they are therefore too expensive for the OE to supply.

High quality, austenitic stainless allows us to back our systems with a Million-Mile guarantee - A BORLA is a lifetime system!

Performance Difference:  BORLA exhausts are also tuned to maximize the performance output of your vehicle and feature a more attractive and cost effective package than stock.

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Q. Can I install a BORLA system myself?

Yes, many of our customers enjoy installing their BORLA system. In fact, we are told all the time that it's a tougher job to remove the stock system than to install their BORLA! Just be sure you have good clearance and access under your vehicle, have the proper tools, observe standard safety procedures, and ensure the vehicle is secured by approved jack stands. We do, however, recommend you have a professional installer do the work, especially for a header installation, which requires more skill.

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Q. Do I need to make any modifications to my vehicle to install the system?

No. Our systems are designed to be completely bolt -on to your vehicle. Factory locations are utilized and all necessary installation hardware is included in the kit.

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Q. Is our product different from a "glasspack" design?

Yes. A "glasspack" is a muffler usually containing a cheap grade of loose fiberglass insulation in a louvered tube. A byproduct of combustion is water, which combines with the expelled gases to form a variety of very corrosive acids. These acids get absorbed by the loose fiberglass packing and attack the louvered core. This in turn causes the core to rust and blow out along with the other internals of the glasspack muffler. All that is left is a loud, empty can.

BORLA® mufflers, on the other hand, contain high quality, continuous strand fiber bundle which is superior to the loose fiberglass packing in glasspack mufflers. This high quality packing material and stainless steel inner core construction, which is impervious to all corrosive acids, protects the packing from breaking down and getting blown out, so a BORLA® muffler never needs replacing. In addition, a BORLA® muffler is the most effective sound-absorbing device for the size, and it is guaranteed for one million miles.

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Q. Are XR-1® exhaust products street legal?

Yes, when selected for the appropriate application.

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Q. Q. Why is BORLA exhaust so much better than the other guys?

BORLA is the original. BORLA pioneered the use of high-quality austenitic stainless steel in exhaust manufacturing over 30 years ago. Alex Borla holds five US patents for innovative, revolutionary exhaust technology. These patented, award and race-winning designs are unbeatable in terms of flow, sound, fit, durability and guarantee. A BORLA muffler actually flows better than a straight pipe. This also translates to fuel economy.

Bottom line -- all other exhaust products are copycats at best; the cliché is true: "Often imitated, never duplicated". Why buy a wannabe when you can own an original? BORLA has made a 3 decade long commitment and continues to lead the pack with performance gains, quality materials, craftsmanship, a distinctive look and sound, and a Million-Mile Warranty. BORLA is not a trendy, here today-gone tomorrow company or product. Whether you drive a Ferrari, Camaro, F-150, Jeep, PT Cruiser, or Civic, BORLA is the exhaust your vehicle deserves.

Some of the engine builders who rely on BORLA to give them the competitive edge are: Greg Davis, Keith Dorton, Kenny Duttweiler, Ernie Elliott, Ryan Falconer, Tony Feil, Dennis Fischer, Earl Gaerte, Ron Hutter, Sonny Leonard, Lingenfelter Performance, Pat Musi, David Nickens, Roush Racing, Saleen, Steeda, Ron Shaver and Robert Yates.

Racing champs who know the benefits of running BORLA's and trust BORLA to be the quickest and quietest to give them the winning advantage include Kenny Bernstein, Brandon Bernstein, G.S. Abbott, Jean Ann Campagna, Steve Echols, Kent Hanley, Alan Kenny, Pat Musi, Wayne Talkington and Jeff Strckland as well as the American LeMans Corvette Racing Team, GM Racing's Cadillac LMP Team and Team Lexus. BORLA has been invited to participate in Toyota racing programs as well as Team Viper's GTS-R, Team Escort, and Team Focus programs from their inceptions. We "rule" the NHRA in exhaust; and sponsor the Speedvision GT and touring class cars.

BORLA has enjoyed some 20 years of mutually beneficial relationships with the OEM (original equipment manufacturers). We participate in the design and build up of many concept vehicles for DaimlerChrysler and Ford as well as GM, TRD, Mazda, Nissan, and Lexus. Ford Motor Company chose BORLA exhaust for their limited Cobra-R model. Ford's national dealer training videos have featured BORLA project vehicles. We developed a complete exhaust system, including headers, for the Shelby Series I and have worked with Toyota and their Solara as well as Mazda and their Protégé on both aftermarket opportunities and limited production runs.

Top engine builders, top winning racers, car manufacturers, and automotive enthusiasts worldwide recognize the difference BORLA makes. You will too.

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Q. Where can I buy a BORLA system?

You can buy BORLA products from performance parts distributors, national mail order catalogs, local muffler shops, and car dealerships as well as direct from the factory. You can buy direct from our website (borla.com) or use our site to find a local retailer in your area.

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Q. Why don't you have sound clips on each of your part numbers?

We really wish we could just package a sound sample in a box like little shampoo bottles or the cologne ads in magazines -- you know, the ones where you pull apart the page and get to actually smell it. But the nature of our product is such that this is not possible.

Although we have posted a few sounds on our website homepage, it's really a disservice to the actual sound quality of our products because they sound so much better in person - no matter what kind of computer speakers you have.

Recorded with a microphone - There are thousands of different microphones available and they all sound different from one another. Record the same system, on the same car, with different microphones and the sound will be different. Variables of condenser mics, dynamic mics, large capsules, small capsules, tubes etc. will all affect the sound you hear on playback. Are you looking to compare microphones or an exhausts?

A compressed sound file - Sound files are normally compressed for web pages and this drastically changes the sound.

Played back through a speaker - Similar to the microphone issue listed in item #1, there are a wide variety of speakers available and they all sound different. The difference in speakers will completely change the sound you hear on playback. Add a subwoofer and it's even less of a true replication of what you will experience after you have installed a Borla on your vehicle.

We wouldn't recommend making your buying decision by listening to sound clips on the web. It's like deciding who has the best tomato sauce by recreating the smell they emit with scratch-and-sniffs. There is no substitute for tasting it.

When you hear an exhaust in person, there are certain physical properties of sound that are impossible to recreate with a sound file, such as vibration through the ground and into your inner ear. The sound you hear from our Corvette exhaust, for example, is not just what comes out of the tailpipe. It's rather a combination of sounds coming from the tailpipe tip, the engine, reflections off the ground, resonance of the cabin -- even the reverberation of sound through your body affects what you hear through your inner ear. You can't recreate all of these variables over the Internet, yet they all affect the sound experience of your exhaust. Therefore, whatever you hear over cyperspace cannot be an accurate replication of what you will hear when you install it on your Vette for real. If you're as critical of sound as we are, this is unacceptable.

Borla Performance strives for opportunities to match up against the competition in real world settings because, after nearly 30 years of success and customer feedback, we have a very good idea of what our customers are looking for.

Although it's fun (and certainly easy) to surf the web and listen to sound clips, we wouldn't recommend using this as your final decision.

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Q. Why are your C6 Cat-Backs™ so expensive?

Since we introduced our C5 S-type (“Stinger”) Cat-Backs™, there has been a dramatic (50%) increase in steel prices. The retail price for our C5 S-Type exhaust has increased accordingly. Our C6 S-Type Cat-Back™ exhaust system includes an X-pipe and the C5 “Stinger” does not. The X-Pipe comprises 2 flanges, the X-Pipe and 2 pipes to connect to the rear section -- and is difficult to build. In other words, our C6 Cat-Back™ system has a lot of added material and labor costs. We have found that a considerable amount of the power gain comes from the X-Pipe, but we will be offering less expensive rear sections in the near future. Alternately, we now offer an X-Pipe for the C5 as well.

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Q. What makes an austenitic steel the best choice for an exhaust upgrade?

Borla Performance stands behind our products by offering a lifetime warranty against defects in materials and workmanship.  After nearly 30 years, the reason we are able to do this is because austenitic stainless steel is a superior material with optimum chromium and nickel content to maximize resistance to corrosion and rust as compared to 400 series which contains iron that, as we all know, rusts.

For example, the stock headers on the Mustang have been made of 400 series stainless for some time. Have you ever looked at your stock headers to see how badly they rust? Do you want to buy an aftermarket system made of 400 series? The same grade material as the system you already have?

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has reported the overwhelming advantages of 300 and 200 series stainless steel over lesser grades like 400. Be clear on your comparisons. Buy the performance upgrade. Buy the quality materials upgrade. Buy the BORLA.

For more details on this subject, please refer to the "About Us" section of this site.

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Q. How do I keep my Borla shining?

BORLA has created a custom, high-end cleaner/polish that has been specially formulated to restore the original factory finish to stainless steel exhaust (PN 21461). Combining state-of-the-art cleaning solutions in a revolutionary formula to provide unmatched results and protection. Helps remove colorization. Cuts through layers of dulling oxides. Safely and easily. Shake well, apply and buff off for a world-class brightness and excellent protection from the elements.

Available exclusively on this website. Makes a great gift!!

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Q. What procedure or formula do you use to determine the perfect muffler sound?

This is a combination of experience, equipment, savvy and Kentucky windage. We are confronted with different parameters depending on the application. For example, we make a significant number of OE and Private Label systems, and each manufacturer has different criteria: Ford Racing may want an aggressive Mustang system while Steeda may be looking for a more subdued sound or visa versa. In the systems we make for the various aftermarket arenas, our customers participate in the design process. We are also governed by federal and state regulations regarding emissions and sound. Fortunately, thanks to SEMA, we now have (in most states, including California) a db number for sound which is 95db. We use the SAE J1492 (replaced SAE J1169) testing procedure. Borla is most well known for making a very mellow growl rather than a painful bark. We do this while providing a gain in power and performance due to the technology of our entire system.

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Q. Explain the interaction of sound, pressure and heat waves in muffler design.

The critical factor to understand is that these three energy waves are emitted at different speeds and frequencies. Like any sound wave, they must be absorbed or interfered with to be diluted. The straight through designs that Borla pioneered dramatically reduce back pressure while eliminating significant sound waves. A portion of this effort is proprietary, even to the level of allowing Alex Borla multiple patents for his unique methods of acoustical sound wave attenuation in an internal-combustion engine muffler. This being said, some of the characteristics we can share. The biggest secret is use of multiple cores in our high end street and racing mufflers. This also is patented technology. Another component is the quality of the materials used. Some companies try to cut corners by making the shell out of a higher quality stainless steel then using mild steel or cheaper  400-series stainless inside. These materials are not conducive to long term use in the stressful environment found in today’s mufflers. One of the reasons is that today’s engines are very lean and clean, creating a much hotter exhaust stream. Other trick items of which Borla is include the special perforated core developed around significant testing as well as the special packing materials Borla incorporates. The use of these components is both costly and requires special equipment to assemble our mufflers. Alex has been at the forefront of both performance exhaust systems and assembly equipment for nearly 30 years. Borla utilizes high quality austenitic stainless steel for everything, including the steel wool packing material. Costly? You bet, but extremely effective and durable. So the secret is to absorb the sound waves and not disturb the power waves. All this while insulating any heat sinked by the muffler.

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Q. What is the decibel limit for street applications? Are laws Local or Federal?

95db in most states using the SAE standard J1492 (or J1169). Some municipalities have restricted this even more dramatically. We build to this number for our aftermarket systems. Our Private label and OE customers may have a different number.

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Q. What are the most common muffler technologies on the market, and how do they work?

The most common method is to chamber the exhaust gases. This is used by most of the OEM as it is simple and inexpensive. The sound waves hit a partition, or baffle, and bounce back into themselves or another wall to kill the sound. Effective, but this method also creates backpressure and reduces power. This is almost a parasitical power loss and is incorporated by numerous aftermarket muffler builders. It doesn't take a degree in physics to understand that while the sound wave is being interrupted, so is the pressure or power wave. Thus a power loss will incur. It also makes a very hot muffler and often is the reason for resonance inside the cockpit.

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Q. Is all sound cancellation technology the same?

While some companies claim breakthroughs in everything from NASA acoustical engineering to mathematically derived counter angles, we have never been able to prove any of their theories without dramatic increases in weight and/or cost. Our R&D engineers purchase our competitors’ systems and give them all the tests -- flow, horsepower, weight even including full cut-away dissections and evaluations of methods and materials. While Borla has been at the top of the high end exhaust equipment pyramid for nearly 30 years, we keep abreast of parallel technology. We never sit still. Alex Borla still spends time in all the shops looking for the next better mouse trap. He hires people with education and experience who are not afraid to think outside of the box.

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Q. Do bigger muffler pipes alter sound? If so, how?

The larger the muffler pipes, the more sound will pass through with the power wave. Big pipes make more sound. We can absorb a certain amount of this sound by utilizing a longer muffler, but at some point this becomes both expensive and heavy. We often use XR-1® mufflers that are over 30" long for serious, Pro off-road trucks. This is double the length of our popular street car mufflers and almost three times longer than, say, a Corvette S-style system. Trophy trucks have no requirement regarding mufflers, but almost everyone runs them. In fact, every Baja winner and SCORE off-road race winner and champion for the last three years has run BORLA’s. We pay no contingency, and these teams spend millions on their efforts. It is the F-1 of off road. Most teams have $250,000 chase trucks and several 18 wheelers as well as one or two helicopters for these races. They don't want to give up power, but they want to hear the radios. They also say after a horrific Baja 1000 they feel twice as refreshed after the race with the BORLA mufflers on. In fact Alan Pflueger, the flyin Hawaiian, drove his Monster Energy Drink Trophy Truck the entire Baja my himself and credits a portion of that to the quieter mufflers we built for him.

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Q. Why does a pushrod Chevy V8 sound different from a pushrod Ford V8 engine? Is it the firing order?

In most cases, the angle of the short turn radius of the exhaust port creates the sound difference -- that is if all other components are equal (cubes, cam, compression, etc). The speed of the exhaust as it rolls over the short turn and gains speed from the valve makes most of the noise in an engine. This is a sonic boom that is relative to the speed of the moving air. Thus, a high compression engine will sound louder, even at an idle. The same is true with a supercharged engine of the same compression.

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Q. An overhead cam V8 seems to have a higher pitch than a pushrod V8 of the same size. Is this because

In most cases, when we say they are the same, we don't have all the data. For example, it is simple and efficient to increase cylinder compression with an overhead cam engine vs. a pushrod, and this will change the sound. Also, the exhaust angles and length of exhaust port are an effective means of altering sound wave frequencies.  This is, for the most part, comparing apples and snow peas.

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Q. Do you have a bionic ear at your company? If so, who’s ear has the final say-so on muffler sounds, a

We are fortunate at BORLA to have about 50 years of combined automotive acoustical experience in our R&D Department. In addition, both Alex Borla and Marian Juszak listen to and drive almost every system we build. Then, the final test: we have dozens of hardcore automotive enthusiasts employed at BORLA and they review most systems. Experience in this, like any technical industry, really counts. It is amazing how often a new engine design comes along, and we hit it right away. For example, when McClaren did the Mercedes SLR with the mufflers in the engine area, BORLA engineers produced a fantastic sounding product within a couple days. It isn't easy to improve on some of these cars. The SLR is around a million dollars, so you can be sure Dr. Z and his group didn't cut corners.

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Q. How does a muffler’s sound and performance differ based on its location in the exhaust system (i.e.

Muffler design is the main factor. The chambered mufflers send the sound waves back and forth in the muffler so the muffler is very loud. Many of us recall the ‘69 Camaro with the hot street muffler of the day. We didn't care if it was loud inside the car or out; we wanted people to hear those horses. Today, enthusiasts like to hear the CD player or carry on a conversation while still enjoying a muscle car. And, we have to deal with both legal issues and the integrity of “do onto others as we want them to do onto us”. If we live in a gated community, the neighbors will probably not be willing to deal with a 100 db machine rumbling into the garage at 11pm. Hence the recent muffler relocation to the rear on most vehicles - an effort to keep resonance down inside the vehicles. Breaking down the sound, however you do it, will be quieter for the driver done as far away from them as possible. Effectively speaking: mufflers placed within about 18” of the header collector make the most power.

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Q. Do you seek a “brand’ sound for each engine, or does one good design just happen to work (and sound)

We at BORLA deliver a sound unique to the vehicle. An Audi or BMW owner is going to have different “ear” than a Mustang GT owner. A Jaguar is tuned differently than a Diesel Crew Cab ride. Will they all still find the “five points” (performance, sound, looks, warranty and cost)? Sure. We just tailor the sound to fit the enthusiast who owns that car, not try to force them to like one, standard sound.

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Q. Will I need to re-program my ignition control computer?

No re-programing of your computer is necessary.  You can expect the computer to adjust to the change over a period of approximately 300-400 miles of operation.  After that time, the full benefits of the system will be realized.  Even though ECU upgrades are not required with a Borla exhaust systems, the added exhaust performance will aid the performance of an ECU upgrade.

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